Issue's articles | The Plan Journal
 Open Access
THEORY
Essay

On the CIAM 7 Grid: From an Ideological to a Critical Tool

by: Pierre-Alain Croset , Andrea Canclini VOLUME 5/2020 - Issue 1 , Pages: 89 - 117 published: 2020-05-21

Much historiographical research has been produced on the post-war CIAMs, demonstrating the importance of the CIAM Grid, proposed as a “thinking tool” for representing the town planning projects at the CIAM 7 in Bergamo (1949). This essay proposes a new critical and epistemological examination of the CIAM Grid based on new archival documents and on a rereading of the exact words used by Le Corbusier, who proposed to consider the Grid as an “interlocutor.” Seventy years later, we propose to go beyond the failure of CIAM 7 and to elaborate a “new Grid,” with the name of “Second Life Grid,” as a critical tool for discussing exclusively projects related to the new paradigm of recycling and reusing buildings and urban spaces. Beginning with the question of the critical legacy of the CIAM Grid, our intention was to think of a Grid conceived no longer as an instrument of dogmatic and normative thought, but as an instrument of dialogical criticism which has been tested through an open call for projects and an international conference held in Bergamo in October, 2019.

 Open Access
EDITORIAL
Editorial

A New Beginning

by: Maurizio Sabini VOLUME 0/2016 - Issue 0 , Pages: 5 - 6 published: 2016-01-22
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CRITICISM
Article

Bauhäusler and the Second Chicago School of Architecture: Enduring Student Exercises

by: Kristin Jones , Zaida Garcia-Requejo VOLUME 6/2021 - Issue 1 , Pages: 219 - 241 published: 2021-06-09

On March 28, 2019, on the occasion of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s 133rd birthday, the Illinois Institute of Technology’s Mies van der Rohe Society displayed an exhibition at S. R. Crown Hall entitled “Stories from the Archives” as part of the larger event theme of “Bauhaus Descendants” in the year of its centenary. The exhibition proposed connections between the Bauhaus and IIT’s school of architecture through a display of archival materials related to the work of the former Bauhäusler Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig Hilberseimer, and Walter Peterhans who founded the modernist school at IIT. This paper provides a deeper investigation of the exhibit’s proposed connections and the relationship between the Bauhaus and IIT’s architecture school through the lens of three enduring student exercises: the court house problem, the planning sequence, and visual training exercises. Considering these three exercises in relation to the curriculum that was developed at IIT shines light on a philosophy of architectural education which started in Europe, matured in Chicago and continues to evolve into the future. 

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URBANISM
Article

Dispersed Densification: A Solution to the London’s Housing Problem Using Small Sites

by: James Dunnett VOLUME 7/2022 - Issue 1 , Pages: 165 - 176 published: 2022-07-06

To meet the demand for more housing in London today, there is great pressure to either rebuild existing housing estates at much higher densities, or to build on the Green Belt. Neither solution is desirable. But there is an alternative–here called dispersed densification on small sites. The 2017 Draft London Plan of the Greater London Authority presented proposals to make much greater use of small sites (less than 0.25 ha
[0.62 ac.]) to meet housing needs. But it had no architectural model, and so this was largely disallowed by Central Government. A willingness to build taller on such sites could, however, have demonstrated the viability of that option. Planning policies currently aim to cluster taller buildings together near transport hubs and peripheral centers. This effectively requires the difficult assembly of larger sites. A willingness to accept taller buildings on a dispersed pattern would allow much greater use of small sites. Such buildings would enjoy an open outlook above the lower-density housing and gardens around them, enjoying the conditions of sun, space, greenery to which the architectural Modern Movement aspired.

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Essay

Open-Air-Space: Inclusive Involvement within a Public Health Crisis

by: Ulysses Sean Vance VOLUME 5/2020 - Issue 2 [HEALTHY URBANISM], Pages: 365 - 384 published: 2021-01-13

Since the eighteenth century, the healing arts have included open-air treatments, with the field hospital at the Royal Sea Bathing Infirmary near London being one of the earliest medical care facilities on record to successfully treat patients in this manner. Florence Nightingale began applying the principles of open-air treatment to architecture when she proposed an open-ward hospital design as a means to provide pure air to the sick. Her perspective would directly influence nineteenth- and early twentieth-century hospital design, which increasingly had to address the rising incidence of infectious diseases in cities. However, hospital design in the twentieth century began to rely on mechanically conditioned air rather than open-air spaces to provide filtered ventilation and reduce particulate contamination. In the twenty-first century, even as the world faces the public health crisis of the global COVID-19 pandemic, the Open-Air-Space Project conceptually revisits the open-air spaces of hospitals. The project basis is the “open plan,” whose structural origin is in part the Maison Dom-Ino system by Le Corbusier.

 Open Access
THEORY
Essay

Musings on Boredom, Midcentury Architecture, and Public Spaces

by: Andreea Mihalache VOLUME 5/2020 - Issue 1 , Pages: 119 - 138 published: 2020-06-11

The rejection of “boredom” fueled the midcentury reaction against modernism, but little is known about the complicated presence of this mood in the architectural discourse. Far from being a mere rhetorical tool, the quip “Less is a bore” is part of Robert Venturi’s larger interest in boredom and was influenced by his reading of a book referenced repeatedly in Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966): August Heckscher’s The Public Happiness (1962). A liberal writer and political activist, Heckscher situated boredom at the core of modern humanity’s alienation. While the concern with boredom was explicitly addressed in the humanities, I suggest that it was taking shape in midcentury architectural polemics under the influence of writings from other disciplines, as well as the emerging artistic practices that were deliberately embracing the “aesthetics of boredom.” Specifically, I will examine Venturi’s reading of Heckscher through two of his (unbuilt) civic projects that directly engage the issue of boredom: Three Buildings for a Town in Ohio (1965) and the entry for the Copley Square Competition (1966).  

 

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LANDSCAPE URBANISM
Article

The Adaptive Island: Proving Ground for Temporal Awareness in the Anthropocene

by: Dalia Munenzon , Kayci Gallagher VOLUME 7/2022 - Issue 1 , Pages: 177 - 196 published: 2022-06-17

Peddocks Island is a 200-acre [80.9 ha] island which is part of The Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area (US). The island has limited public transportation and is rarely visited by humans. Its use and ecology has transformed throughout history and it is now positioned to transform again with climate change and rising sea levels. This article suggests that the island’s history, geology, mythology, and ecology situate it perfectly to experience climate change’s temporal and spatial impacts. Amitav Ghosh points out the need to communicate and narrate the uncertainty of the changing climate and build temporal awareness through narratives. In this work, we suggest the island as a “living lab,” available for both controlled observations and for the public to experience the realities of climate change. This article provides tangible and experiential concepts for Ghosh’s question by exploring mutable and ephemeral infrastructure design strategies

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THEORY
Article

The Contested Nature of Modernity: “Type and Individuality” in the Deutscher Werkbund

by: Bilgen Dündar VOLUME 6/2021 - Issue 1 , Pages: 243 - 262 published: 2021-06-08

The purpose of this paper is to contribute an inclusive insight into the debate of type (Typisierung) and individuality in the Deutscher Werkbund. The debate is widely discussed on the dichotomy between art and industry in the historiography of modern architecture. This paper aims to show that both camps of the debate wanted to constitute the synthesis of art and industry, but the methods that they used were different. This paper considers the debate as a referent of the contested nature of modernity. Modernity oscillates between the desire to give the modern world new modes of structure, order, regulation and to accept modernity with all complexities. This article claims that while the notion of type represents the former one, the notion of individuality represents the later one in the realm of architecture. This article unveiled the control mechanisms in the discourses of defenders of Typisierung. It found the concepts norm, organization, system, standardization, which were the reflections of the Enlightenment. On the other hand, it pointed out the reactions of the individualists against these discourses.

 Open Access
Article

New Healthy Settlements Responding to Pandemic Outbreaks: Approaches from (and for) the Global City

by: Luca Maria Francesco Fabris , Federico Camerin , Gerardo Semprebon , Riccardo Maria Balzarotti VOLUME 5/2020 - Issue 2 [HEALTHY URBANISM], Pages: 385 - 406 published: 2021-01-12

The essay critically addresses several solutions and strategies for tackling urban inequalities to uphold the recent “right to the ‘healthy’ city” spatial paradigm based on early social science works by Emily Skinner and Jeffrey R. Masuda (2013) and then developed as a urban planning component by the interdisciplinary research group Barcelona Lab for Urban Environmental Justice and Sustainability (2019). The authors propose a transdisciplinary approach in dealing with city renewal-regeneration and the safer use of its spaces. The interrelation between urbanism and architecture, including environmental design, mobility, and social relations, among others, would merge to imagine a more ecologically and socially balanced urban milieu. The paper analyses four specific case studies assumed as proper approaches in dealing with the pandemic, critically reflecting on the application of “Superblocks,” “Tactical Urbanism,” and “15-minute City” concepts by illustrating and comparing their application in three global cities (respectively Barcelona, Beijing, and Milan). In a nutshell, the authors demonstrate that these policies have their crucial feature in being effective applications formulated for different contexts, proposing successful strategies to overcome health, environment, and mobility issues in all the contemporary global cities.

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REFLECTIVE PRACTICE
Project

A Lab for a New Civitas. An Innovative School in the Po Valley

by: Giorgio Adelmo Bertani , Francesca Vezzali VOLUME 5/2020 - Issue 1 , Pages: 139 - 162 published: 2020-06-17

Sorbolo is a beautiful town located halfway between the ancient ducal city of Parma and the Po River, within a countryside that developed from marshes, rows of poplars, embankments, vineyards. In 2016, after an initial planning process, the municipality of Sorbolo submitted to the MIUR (Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università, e della Ricerca) a plan for the development of a school campus. The facility was meant to be open to the local territory and community, parents, and citizens wishing to have a stake in the decision-making processes that apply to the education and training of young people.

The first step was the construction of a new building complex destined to a 24 hour school system, accomodating approximately 450 students, ten to fourteen years old, supported by a cross-disciplinary approach: “a school for everyone, motivational, open, innovative.” The firm UFFICIO PROGETTI Architetti Associati Bertani & Vezzali, with the Sorbolo project, was the second winner of the MIUR international contest for the creation of 52 innovative schools over the entire Italian territory. 

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REFLECTIVE PRACTICE
Article

Urban Regeneration of Historic Italian Borghi after the Pandemic

by: Andrea Ponsi , Karin Templin VOLUME 7/2022 - Issue 1 , Pages: 197 - 216 published: 2022-06-07

The advent of the pandemic has had a large impact on expectations about the way people live and work. The desire of many to live in situations of environmental health has stimulated proposals and actions aimed at revitalizing the life of Italian countryside villages (“borghi”). This article considers how architects and urban planners can help reverse the escape from borghi to cities, for a migration in the opposite direction, from cities to borghi. The analysis evaluates the opportunities given by smart working and distance learning, the forms of mobility such as the restoration of local railways and car-sharing policies, the restoration of abandoned buildings for new uses such as co-working spaces and “alberghi diffusi” (widespread hotels). Economic incentives to stimulate local agricultural products and artisan traditions are also considered. As an example, the article reports studies by the authors aimed at urban development interventions for historic villages based on the application of the “analog method,” that is design proposals inspired by the architectural qualities of existing borghi reinterpreted in forms and building technologies of a contemporary character. 

 Open Access
SUSTAINABILITY
Book Review

Modern Architecture and Climate

by: Brian Ford VOLUME 6/2021 - Issue 1 , Pages: 265 - 270 published: 2021-05-07

 

Modern Architecture and Climate: Design before Air Conditioning

By Daniel A. Barber

Princeton University Press, 2020

8 in. x 10.5 in. [203 mm x 267 mm]

76 color + 196 b/w illustrations

336 pages

$60.00 / £50.00 (hardcover) 

ISBN: 978-0-691-17003-9

 

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Article

(sub)URBAN Hybrid Housing: Rethinking the City with Healthy, Sustainable Housing

by: Craig Griffen VOLUME 5/2020 - Issue 2 [HEALTHY URBANISM], Pages: 407 - 424 published: 2020-11-23

City dwellers have historically fled to the countryside to escape disease but returned when it was safe. US cities have experienced growth for decades, but that trend is slowing and, in some cases, reversing. Increasingly, millennials are leaving cities for the suburbs to combat escalating housing costs and lack of family-friendly amenities, and the current pandemic has sped up that rate of exodus. Urban dwelling is a very sustainable lifestyle, so how can we provide healthier and more sustainable qualities of suburban living in the city to entice people to return and/or stay? This research/design project, proposed to fill large vacant blocks in cities, produced a (sub)Urban hybrid housing model that combines qualities of suburban housing with the benefits of urban dwelling. The resulting design, based on the Charleston house typology arranged in a checkerboard pattern, provides a south-facing side yard with access from most rooms to sunlight, fresh air, shade, photovoltaic panels and a private, green, social distancing space not found in the common urban row home typology.

 Open Access
SUSTAINABILITY
Article

Waving the Magic Wand: An Argument for Reorganizing the Aridlands around Watersheds

by: Danika Cooper VOLUME 5/2020 - Issue 1 , Pages: 163 - 184 published: 2020-05-21

Irrigation remains the primary means of sustaining urbanization and stabilizing agricultural productivity in arid America. In the contest for the West, water is both wealth and power. Today’s struggle to overturn water scarcity is traceable through a long history of legislation overseeing land regulation, property speculation, societal development, and cultural attitudes, real and perceived, inscribed within the America’s aridlands. In reality, there is no magic wand - no miraculous technology - that alone will fulfill the needs of all who have been promised abundance in the aridlands. This paper proposes that revisiting John Wesley Powell’s 1893 proposal for aridland development in the context of today’s ecological conditions catalyzes an alternative response to today’s predictions of changing climates, and can provide the basis of an approach to the aridlands which builds from the enmeshed relationship between social and environmental systems.

 

 Open Access
REFLECTIVE PRACTICE
Book Review

"Modern and Site Specific: The Architecture of Gino Valle 1945-2003"

by: Kenneth Frampton VOLUME 4/2019 - Issue 1 , Pages: 223 - 226 published: 2019-07-16

 

 

 

Modern and Site Specific:      

The Architecture of Gino Valle 1945-2003

By Pierre-Alain Croset and Luka Skansi

London: Lund Humphries, 2018

250 × 190 mm 

100 b/w and 150 color illustrations 

352 pages

£50.00 GBP (hardcover)

ISBN: 978-1848222779  

 

 Open Access
CRITICISM
Exhibition Review

Stories of Women Architects Who Made Their Mark

by: Caterina Padoa Schioppa VOLUME 7/2022 - Issue 1 , Pages: 219 - 230 published: 2022-07-06
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Article

Healthy Inner-City Communities: Toward an Integrative Framework

by: Joongsub Kim VOLUME 5/2020 - Issue 2 [HEALTHY URBANISM], Pages: 425 - 446 published: 2021-01-26

This paper addresses an important and timely question: How can disadvantaged communities of color become healthier? To address the question, we built on an interdisciplinary body of literature in public health and healthy community design to develop an integrative framework utilizing a variety of social capital. Community engagement and intermediaries played a critical role in constructing and facilitating the integrative framework that we applied across the study community. This study used a case study methodology reinforced by the relevant literature, participatory action research, interviews, surveys, and evaluations. The outcomes of the project suggest that the integrative framework that we built, which focuses on social capital, could provide an effective way to promote better health in disadvantaged communities. To make the framework more impactful, however, community engagement, partnerships with grassroots community organizations, a democratic design process, and the role of designers as facilitators are essential. The study’s outcomes may be useful in addressing some COVID-19 related challenges facing marginalized communities, such as lack of access to green and open space that could help residents build social capital and improve their health. 

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SUSTAINABILITY
Article

Landscape Lifecycles as a Speculative Design Research Practice for Transforming Waste Conditions

by: Catherine De Almeida VOLUME 5/2020 - Issue 1 , Pages: 185 - 220 published: 2020-06-23

Research-based design has been foundational for landscape architecture. Analytical layering in geographically-based mappings has become a universally applied, formulaic approach. For waste landscapes, this has generated similar redevelopment strategies for drastically differing waste landscape conditions. This site typology, however, requires more nuanced approaches. As a design-research framework, “landscape lifecycles” aims to tackle waste landscapes with integrative strategies and techniques that reactivate waste as a legible and dynamic contributor to local and regional contexts; a method for integrating multiple diverse programs rooted in economic, environmental, and social performance to form hybrid assemblages in the transformation of perceived material and spatial waste. This article highlights design-research and generative representational methods developed through projects and coursework that embrace speculation as a means of engaging with waste conditions at multiple scales — from the material to the region. These methods range from speculative geographic, process, and abstract mapping to scenario testing to time-based, projective design that document, explore, and test an argumentative hypothesis and the multi-scalar design implications of research on the imaginative potentials of waste transformation.

 Open Access
TECTONICS
Book Review

Microalgae Building Enclosures: Design and Engineering Principles

by: Daekwon Park VOLUME 7/2022 - Issue 1 , Pages: 231 - 235 published: 2022-07-06

 

Microalgae Building Enclosures: Design and Engineering Principles

By Kyoung Hee Kim

New York: Routledge, 2022

7 x 0.5 x 10 in.

188 color illustrations

254 pages

$39.95

March 29, 2022

ISBN: 9780367410452

 Open Access
CRITICISM
Book Review

Reframing Chicago’s Residential Architecture

by: Robert Weddle VOLUME 6/2021 - Issue 1 , Pages: 271 - 276 published: 2021-05-07